In the “Forest Fire Protection – Training Framework” post, we created a Training Framework for the FFP project.  L4Y Learning For Youth GmbH is the German coordinator, and the BOSEV (Turkey), KMOP (Greece), SPEL (Portugal), OVAR-Forma (Portugal), Cesie (Italy), Growth-Coop (Spain), Citizens in Power (Cyprus) are partners of the project.

Also, you can download the R1 – FFP Training Framework Full report here. Or the Executive Summary here. The blog post of the Executive Summary is here.

Table of Content

European Commission’s support for the production of this content does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.


Executive Summary

The main impacts of the Forest Fire Protection Project (2021-1-DE02-KA220-ADU-000028430) are the preservation of the environment and the social inclusion of rural communities by promoting their readiness and resilience against forest fires. For this purpose, partners will develop a training module on “Fire prevention and self-protection against forest fire”.

Partners will offer the Training to adult rural communities face-to-face and virtually (through an online platform). They developed the Result 1 (R1) – FFP Training Framework over nine months and comprised of the following activities: the creation of an external group of experts, benchmarking on the good practices of training the rural populations on forest fire prevention and self-protection when facing forest fires; interviews with people in rural areas; interviews with professionals on civil protection and forest fire; definition of the preliminary module structure; round table with an external group of experts to discuss the module structure; and Report: ForestFireProtection training framework.

The methodology of partners was: to invite;
– First, a potential group of experts on civil protection, regional authorities and education to give feedback in a later phase of the project;
– secondly, they did benchmark research on good practices worldwide and cover different Erasmus+ projects;
– thirdly, they conduct 196 interviews with people from rural areas and professionals on civil protection and forest fire;
– fourthly, they conclude the previous activities that allowed them to build off a preliminary module structure;
– finally, the group of experts provided feedback on the module structure, and partners made changes accordingly to create a final version of the module structure.

In conclusion, the activities developed, and data collected during Result 1 (R1) – FFP Training Framework enabled the partnership to build the structure of the training module “Fire prevention and self-protection against forest fire.”

Forest Fire Protection: Introduction 

The current policy challenges identified in the report “Forest Fires – Sparking fire smart policies in the EU” of the European Commission (2018) and the booklet “Land-based wildfire prevention – Principles and experiences on managing landscapes, forests and woodlands for safety and resilience in Europe” from the European Commission (2021) both refer to the need of increasing the awareness and preparedness of the population from rural areas in case of wildfires. 

Following this premise, the Forest Fire Protection project – an Erasmus project in development by 8 organisations from 7 different countries (Cyprus, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Türkiye) – aims to develop a training module on self-protection against forest fires that will transfer to the rural population’s basic skills to create simple contingency plans to optimally react against the danger of forest fires through face-to-face and online training. 

Partners designed through the development of seven activities, Result 1 (R1) – FFP Training Framework to gather data, information and feedback to help identify the needs of the rural population concerning protection against forest fires as well as; partners should cover key content that in a forest fire prevention training module. The activities focused on the collection of good practices all over the world, interviews with inhabitants from rural populations, and interviews and round tables with professionals on forest fire and civil protection. All the information gathered in the scope of these activities supported the creation of a training structure for a module entitled “Forest fire prevention and self-protection against forest fire”. Partners will develop three units later in the project: 1) Introduction to forest fire; 2) Forest fire prevention; 3) Protection against forest fire. 

In this sense, this report covers the aims of each activity in detail, along with the methodology adopted by the consortium to carry them out and the main findings. 

The report’s last section presents the final version of the training structure with the training content, learning outcomes and timeframe. 

1. Methodology (Forest Fire Protection)

At the end of the first phase of the Forest Fire Protection project, Partners will present a transferable and innovative training framework of the training module “Forest fire prevention and self-protection against forest fire”. They built the framework on preliminary findings and reports that allowed the project consortium to gather the necessary information for the expected result. In specific, it consisted of the following: 

  • creation of an external group of experts; 
  • benchmarking of good practices; 
  • interviews with people from rural areas; 
  • interviews with professionals on civil protection and forest fire; 
  • round tables with the external group of experts (professionals on civil protection and forest fire). 

In the initial phase, partners invited professionals in civil protection and forest fire to consult the project’s findings – as the External Group of Experts. 

Then, partners investigated good practices implemented worldwide (24 in total) whose aim was to increase awareness about forest fires and fires in general to the populations. Meanwhile, partners divide the best practices into topics (general information about forest fires, forest fire prevention and self-protection against forest fires) to help match the content with the training modules’ units and draw inspiration from available resources and existing practices. 

After benchmarking, the partnership conducted face-to-face and online interviews with people from rural areas (99) and professionals on civil protection and forest fire (97) from all 7 participating countries. A set of important data arose from the interviews, which allowed the project team to efficiently identify the content that needed to be addressed in the training module, both from the rural population’s perspective and the professionals in this matter.

In summary, benchmarking good practices and the interviews enabled the elaboration of a preliminary training structure and defining the methodology to elaborate the training resources further. 

Once partners created a preliminary training structure, they organised round tables in each of the 7 participating countries to obtain feedback from the External Group of Experts that was contacted early in the project. The round tables aimed to validate the findings and better shape the learning contents and training structure. 

Finally, they did create a final version of the training structure for the module “Fire prevention and self-protection against forest fire” 

2. Activities implemented in the scope of Result 1

2.1. External Group of Experts (Forest Fire Protection)

To consult and validate the findings of the project in a later phase, the consortium partners created an External Group of Experts. This process consisted in contacting political authorities, civil protection authorities and other stakeholders representatives, which partners considered with relevant knowledge to assess the training needs of the rural population concerning civil protection.
In total, 8 external groups integrated with 25 members into the External Group of
Experts. Among them were civil protection and forest fire professionals, forestry and nature conservation representatives, political actors, civil defence managers, education managers and trainers.

2.2. Benchmarking of good practices

The partnership benchmarked good practices for training the rural population on forest fire prevention and self-protection when facing forest fires.

Partners collected good practices from all over the world, including Erasmus+ projects. They adapt to the project, enabling a better understanding of some initiatives, projects and approaches already implemented or ongoing to increase awareness. The partnership and or put together a total of 24 good practices organised into three different groups, according to the units of the training module:

  • 1) Introduction to forest fire;
  • 2) Forest fire prevention; and
  • 3) Protection against forest fire.

Below is information on the collection of good practices, specifically a brief description of what they consist of, their country of implementation and the group it belongs to.

#Country of ImplementTitleBrief SummaryGroup
1.CyprusForest Protection
A yearly initiative by the Department of Forests
aimed at enlightening and raising awareness
among citizens on the importance of forests
and the urgent need to protect them from
forest fires.
e-Learning for the
Preparedness and
Response to
Natural Disasters
The “e-PPR” European Project (2014-1-DK01-
KA200-000763) was created to address the
need for education and training in natural
disasters by creating educational material.
Use of EFFIS
Being aware of local fire risks can help citizens
to evacuate and manage their risks.
Training individuals on how to access and use the
EFFIS allows access to a wider range of
information on forest fires.
4.Germany120 seconds to
This good practice focuses on house fires and
covers the measures one should take
immediately once a fire occurs in a
house/apartment and what one should do to
ensure survival.
5.GermanyForest fire: what
to do?
An unforeseen forest fire can spread quickly
and have dire consequences. Therefore, you
should react quickly in an emergency.
6.GreeceForest Fires –
Educational material from the Argyroupolis
Environmental Education Centre with the main
purpose of helping students to reflect critically
on how humans interact with the
environment regarding the issue of forest fires.
Manual From
Natural Disasters
Protection Manual From Natural Disasters in
Schools in Greece and other European
Countries addressed to primary and secondary
school students.
8.GreeceThe fire concerns
you – “Η φωτιά σε
αφορά” – WWF
Environmental Education Material for
Prevention of Forest Fire addressed to primary
and secondary school students.
VOLunteers in
ACTion: Raising
Awareness for
Volunteer Fire
The VOLinACT(Project Number: 2020-1-EL01-
KA204-078872) was created with the aim of
disseminating the necessity for forest fire
prevention, utilizing the volunteerism of
citizens through awareness-raising activities.
10.IndonesiaForest Fire
Protection for
A training module aims to build a common
perception of the importance of forest fire
prevention, and to raise motivation and
participation of the local community in Forest
Fire Prevention.
11.IndonesiaHow to Prevent
Forest and Land
Fires (Cara
Kebakaran Hutan
dan Lahan)
This good practice aims at providing guidance
and tips on the procedures to follow when
forest fire occurs.
12.ItalySicuraMente“SicuraMente” is an experimental project of
education and orientation to the culture of civil
protection, safety and self-protection from
13.LithuaniaForest School
staff training
“Let’s go Wild.”
The “Let’s go Wild” European Project (2019-1-
LT01-KA101-060145) aims at the development
of school staff competencies, through
attending Forest School Education training.
14.PortugalFire hazard
This initiative aims at alerting tourists and the
overall population to rural fire hazards through
the use of social media, media and signage.
15.PortugalForest fire
prevention: a
study about the
The study will focus on the initial training
(University degree) of the technicians that
work on the
forestry area, their professional training needs
and the existing offer of training in Portugal.
16.PortugalForest Walk
(“Caminhada pela
This initiative aims to mark the International
Day of Forests by promoting a forest walk in
the 18th district of Portugal.
17.PortugalSafe Villages, Safe
People (“Aldeias
Seguras, Pessoas
An initiative aimed at raising awareness to
prevent the risky behaviour and adopt self-
protection and preparedness measures against
rural fires.
Careforest –
Taking care of
forest for
protecting local
and global
ecosystems and
human life
Taking care of the forest to protect local
and global ecosystems and human life (project
number: 2019-1-ES01-KA201-065866) was
created to raise awareness for
the need for care and protection of forests and
to enhance citizen’s knowledge and capacity
when facing forest fires.
19.SpainAnimals to clear
Grazing helps to keep the forest “clean” to
reduce the vegetation. Animals are used in
Aragon to graze on firebreaks.
20.SpainGuidance on
Evacuation Drills
in Educational
A guide for schools to use when conducting fire
drills to train pupils on how to act in the event
of a fire.
21.SpainThe total ban on the
use of fire and
the circulation of
motor vehicles in
forest areas and
areas of forest
The ban took place between 1 June and 15
October 2009. It addressed the burning of
natural vegetation and agricultural and
forestry waste, as well as the use of fire for the
preparation of food and the use of motor
vehicles in protected áreas
Be FirewiseThe Firewise Communities programme focusses
on the promotion of simple activities to create
a community support network to reduce the
risk of wildfires within a locality.
Fire Emergency
Evacuation Plan
and the Fire
A fire emergency evacuation plan (FEEP) is a
a written document which includes the action to
be taken by all staff in the event of a fire and the
A fire emergency evacuation plan (FEEP) is a
a written document which includes the action to
be taken by all staff in the event of a fire and the
arrangements for calling the fire brigade. It can
include any relevant information about
the FEEP.
States of
Creating a “Clean
Wildfires can produce extremely high levels of
smoke and pollutants for properties within its
vicinity. Avoiding the smoke through the
creation of a “clean room” within the home can
prove lifesaving.

2.3. Interviews with people in rural areas

A total of 99 people from rural areas were interviewed. The interviews aimed at collecting information on people’s experiences with forest fires, current practices on forest fire prevention, and their knowledge of self-protection when facing forest fires.
In total, 6 questions were asked, all in an open-ended format.

2.3.1. Interviews from Cyprus

CIP interviewed ten people from rural areas (7 female and 3 male) aged between 31-61, although a few were 70 or older. The interviewees come mainly from villages around the mountainous region of Cyprus as well as around.

National Forest Parks. The villages include Louvaras, Platres, Vavatsinia and Foini. They specifically chose this region and villages because every summer, they report various incidents of forest fires, at times, these incidents are smaller and easier to handle, and other times, they become uncontrollable and catastrophic, as occurred last year, in July of 2021, in the Arakapas-Ora fire.

More than 60% of the interviewees have either had direct experiences with forest fires in the past or have been very close to forest fires. The responses to the interviewees’ feelings have been common, with most of them citing fear, stress, and the inability to think clearly at that moment.

One person mentioned the “POLYVIOS” programme under the Civil Defence (Ministry of
Interior), which trains civilians on how to react and which steps to take in the case of an
emergency. However, this emergency response is not specific to forest fires but concerns the case of war, flood, fires and any other emergency. The other interviewees have noted they are unaware of any official programme/training/initiative concerning forest fire prevention; as such, they have never taken part in any of it.

All inhabitants have agreed that fire protection education and training are essential for them to learn some of the basic responses and to know exactly what to and where to go during a fire emergency. Most have suggested that such initiatives should be promoted by the government and their respective community councils.

When asked how one should self-protect against forest fire, the interviewees said that calling the firefighters is the first thing they should do. Some interviewees noted that they would try to protect their houses by keeping the surrounding areas wet. Another interviewee has stated that people should not be scorching vegetation, especially during the hotter months of the year. Additionally, some of the responses included that in case
of fire, if they are to leave their homes, they should go to a place that is open and clean of any excess vegetation and dry branches with no trees close by.

When asked about important measures, the interviewees stressed the need to create
more fire breaks are to be created around the villages, as well as the installation of fire hoses
that is easy to use every few meters across the villages so that even if a small fire breaks out, it can be dealt with immediately. Finally, one interviewee highlighted the need to have a fire evacuation plan for the villages so that inhabitants will know at any given point, depending on the direction of the fire and which way they should escape.

2.3.2. Interviews from Germany

Ten people from rural areas (3 female and 7 male) consented to participate in the
interviews. The respondents are between 18 to 61 years old, nominally: 50%
between 18-30 years old; 10% between 31-40; 20% between 41 to 50; 10% between 51-
60, and 10% were over 60 years old.

Most of the people interviewed had no previous experience with a forest fire and only
knew about it from the media. One of them mentioned she had faced fire before when hiking
with her team and that, while the fire occurred, they just watched the fire with terrifying feelings and panic and had no idea what to do.

One of the most common responses from people related to the question “what is the right thing to do when a forest fire is spotted” is to call the national emergency number (112) so that the authority can get into the location and put the fire off. The interviewees also mentioned that if the fire is on a small scale and possible, one could try to extinguish it by using nearby tools before it spreads.

Even though the interviewees live in places surrounded by forests, none of them is aware of or has participated in training or activities concerning forest fire prevention. Also, they did not get any information from the authority regarding that matter since they moved to high-risk areas. Despite that, one of them watched a documentary from the local TV provider which gave an education about a forest fire.

All interviewees agreed that providing fire protection and prevention training is necessary for those who need it, especially first aid courses. Some interviewees thought that such training should be voluntarily organised by the local authorities and civil society, such as NGOs, foundations, and schools, since it is crucial to teach the children about fire education.

When asked how one should self-protect against forest fire, the responses varied. Not smoking in the forest area was one of the most given responses. Some responded that it was important to extinguish the campfire after use and keep a distance from fires. Finally, they mentioned that it is important to cover the mouth and nose with a wet cloth while breathing to protect the lungs from the fire smoke.

Concerning important measures, a few of them mentioned:
– installing an alarm system in places;
– giving a safety distance of at least 50m between houses and from the nearby forest;
– having a fire extinguisher at home, especially for those who have kids;
– monitoring the forest to determine if a fire has started;
– understanding and obeying the fire prevention regulation at all times;
Finally, the population must have access to a fire protection plan in an emergency.

2.3.3. Interviews from Greece (Forest Fire Protection)

A total of 10 people living in the rural areas of Attica (3 males and 7 females) were
interviewed. Of these, 50% are between 18 – 30 yo, and the other 50% are between
31 – 40.

Out of the 10 people, 90% answered that they had faced forest fires several times. They
all replied that the emotions that overwhelmed them were fear, anxiety, despair, and
stress. One interviewee replied that he saw animals in danger, coming out on main roads
and being in danger from cars. He felt helpless and angry about the lack of measures to
fight the fire. The interviewees referred to the ashes that fill the houses and the
suffocating atmosphere and that, most of the time, there is no water and the electricity goes out. Also, many roads were closed by the municipal police and fire brigade for security reasons and created a few escape routes in case of a fire spread.

For the question “what the right thing to do when a fire is spotted” is, all interviewees replied
that the Hellenic Fire Service and local authorities should be called. They mentioned that there should be introductory training with the basic activities that one should do to help in such occasions as forest fires. For example: call the fire department; remove things that can worsen the situation; help people without putting other people at risk; how to extinguish a fire at home or, if not possible, leave and call the fire department immediately.

Most of the interviewees (80%) answered that they did not know of any
program/training/initiative concerning the prevention of forest fires in their region. two interviewees mentioned two good practices: Vodafone Smart Forest for fire prevention in the Parnitha region (in Attica); and training for volunteer firefighters provided by the Municipality of Dionysos. They also mentioned a group of volunteers that anyone can register called the “ASSOCIATION OF CIVIL PROTECTION VOLUNTEERS D.K. DIONYSUS,” and that, last year, the Municipality invited the citizens to be a part.

All the interviewees answered that training in fire protection is essential (not only for
fires but for other natural phenomena as well). Furthermore, they all agreed that it
should be present in schools, workplaces, and municipalities, especially if they are close to a forest area. Updates should be made in early summer in the open and the central regions, such as squares. Recently, an effort has been made to inform and raise awareness of civil protection. There must be information in schools, to citizens on social media, on television, on mobile phones, by letters in citizens’ homes, and even in the workplace, especially in companies near or in forest areas.

In general, the interviewees stated that every expert should inform about self-protection and follow the instructions/framework approved by the relevant authorities. They mentioned some self–protection instructions:
– cut the grass (if there is any) around their houses;
– keep their distance from fire;
– cover the face with a wet blouse if facing a fire to protect from smoke and fumes;
– leave immediately before the smoke becomes heavier and more harmful. Some interviewees underlined the importance of having a First Aid Kid, which should include non-flammable clothes and shoes, water, a mask, a blanket, and a cell phone to call for help. However, the interviewees concluded that, without the necessary knowledge, there is a high probability of injury, making the work of specialists difficult.

As for important measures concerning forest fire protection, the interviewees responded that everyone should have fire extinguishers, fire alarms, fire safety plans, emergency plans, houses with safe distances, deforestation in the wild grass during the summer months, and should avoid littering. The knowledge residents should have about the existing measures was pointed out once again, and they mentioned that the Hellenic Fire Service should be rewarded with better earnings and more recruitment.

2.3.4. Interviews from Italy

In Italy, Cesie interviewed 10 people from rural areas. The interviewees are from many small villages and towns constantly at risk of damage caused by fires, specifically forest fires based in the centre of Sicily and Veneto. 100% of the respondents were between 18-30 years old.

None of the respondents had ever faced or experienced a forest fire in the first person, although the majority mentioned that they live in areas which are usually targeted by forest fires during the Summer, especially when the wind is strong and warm (wind from
the south, in particular).

Respondents were quite homogenous when asked what the right thing to do when a

When asked if they were aware of programmes or training concerning forest fire prevention in their areas, 100% of the interviewees gave a negative answer.

Furthermore, none of them has ever participated in any training due to the lack of initiatives on this matter. Considering that the respondent comes from rural areas, at
risk of great damage from forest fires, the feedback to this question highlights
the need to create initiatives and training.

The respondents were also unanimous when asked about the importance of fire protection education and training. 100% stated that such education and training is of utmost importance because they understand or have seen the extensive damage
fires have done in their regions. Some respondents have mentioned that local authorities should promote such education and training more often and start from school. One of the participants added that social networks would also be an efficient tool to reach more people and raise awareness about this topic. All interviewees agreed that local authorities should improve fire protection and prevention education.

Although all of the interviewees were hesitant about what one should do to self-protect
against forest fires, all of them stated that the correct behaviour would be to involve
local authorities and professionals who deal with fires and fire protection. Among other responses, some said that running away and protecting themselves from smoke and flames, while others were more specific, involving knowledge of the terrain and which areas are more inflammable than others (like places with high grass) and staying away from them while getting away. Other self-protective measures mentioned by some respondents were covering the face with a wet cloth and running opposite the fire and wind. Finally, one interviewee explained how fires expand in forests and which zones are more protected.

Regarding measures deemed important concerning forest fire protection, respondents
stated several aspects, including fire alarms, proper safety and emergency plans, fire
extinguishers, a safe distance of houses from forests and better cleaning and security of
forests themselves from dry grass. Some interviewees also expressed the importance of knowing whom to call to deal efficiently with the fire. Finally, they also mentioned the convenience of having software that would inform firefighters and forest

2.3.5. Interviews from Portugal (Forest Fire Protection)

The two Portuguese partners interviewed 26 people (3 male and 23 female).
Most interviewees resided in towns (such as Canedo, Gião, Olival and Lobão) in the Santa Maria da Feira region with some urban and forest fire history. The respondents were between 18 to 61 years old, nominally: 8% were between 18-30 years old, 27% between 31-40; 30% between 41 to 50; 8% between 51-60; and the remaining 27% between 61-70.

Most of the people interviewed had, at least once, faced a forest fire. One of the interviewees mentioned that, in her case, because the fire had turned so severe, the police blocked the roads and forced them to take another route on the way home. When describing the experience, some related being worried and afraid, sentiments that were mixed with panic, sadness and despair. Some started to feel anger and outrage from those who were not careful and set/started a fire.

For the question “what actions should one perform in case of a forest fire” most respondents expressed the urgency to call the firefighters or the national emergency number (112) and follow the authorities’ advice. Another popular opinion shared by the interviewees was that they would protect their houses and goods, mentioning the need to start putting off the fire with either water hoses or buckets and even spraying water on the walls and ceilings. A few mentioned the necessity of saving oneself first and finding a way to create a safe place to stay. One person mentions the necessity of finding a piece of cloth to protect one’s airways from smoke.

The majority of interviewees admitted not being aware of any
programmes/training/initiatives related to the prevention of forest fires, 100%
expressed that they had never taken part in any of those. Most preferred that they do
not even know about the existence of such initiatives. One interviewee stated that she knew about simple and short lectures that, in the past, firefighters’ headquarters were giving on forest fire protection training. Another interviewee mentioned that the authorities had a platform where you let them know when you are burning disposal waste so that they know it is not a wildfire.
Finally, one interviewee said to have participated in a fire safety course but was only concerned with prevention and protection in case of domestic fires in specific.

Once again, 100% of the participants agreed that there should be fire protection education training in which the basics are taught, and a simulation of fire/evacuation should be conducted so that people could be better prepared for panic moments. Furthermore, they agreed that such training should be mandatory for all living in areas with higher fire risk. City councils and training centres should host these activities at parishes. They also mentioned that authorities should expose children as young as pre-schoolers to awareness campaigns on forest fire prevention. They suggested implementing an awareness day for the local population and training on first aid and fire prevention.

When asked what one should do to self-protect against forest fires, the most.

When asked about important measures concerning forest fire protection, the interviewees highlighted that the necessary action was cleaning and keeping all forests and woods. They discussed that the Government should take forest cleaning more seriously and supervise the cleaning process, help those who, for many reasons, cannot do it, and charge those who do not follow this protective measure. This would help not only
prevent rural fires but also would help reduce the possibility of spreading the burning.
Many mentioned the creation of security distances between houses and forests, helping to not affect the habitations in case of a fire, which they could also use as a safe path for people, firefighters and emergency vehicles. Finally, some interviewees also said that it is important to have a water hose at a home in case they need to put out a fire, as well as to have fire extinguishers and First Aid Kits in case of fire emergencies.

2.3.6. Interviews from Spain

In Spain, ten people (7 female and 3 male) live in rural areas and are aware of the importance of their natural environment, either because they live from tourism or because they are lovers of nature, fauna and flora. Were selected to take part in this interview. Most reside in the Andalusia region, with populations of no more than 15,000 inhabitants in protected areas and natural parks. Of these ten interviewees, 30% were under 30 years of age, 20% were over 70, and the other 50% were between 41 and 60 years old.

When asked if the interviewees had ever experienced a forest fire, 40% said they had been confronted with forest fires at least once. All of them were
caused by human activity. The interviewees said that the first sensation was the
helplessness of seeing how the flames were gradually consuming the flora, accompanied
by the fear caused by the proximity of their homes or relatives. They
all agree on the good fortune of the rapid action of the civil protection teams who
managed to control it effectively and that there was no need to lament major damage.

All respondents agreed on the importance of notifying the emergency services. They also stressed the importance of warning the nearby population using loudspeakers and alarm sounds and trying to organise, together with the security forces, the rapid evacuation of people in vehicles in an orderly manner to traffic jams that could lead to fatal consequences.

Most interviewees are unaware of any regional programmes/training/initiatives

concerning forest fire prevention, except for a few workshops in schools.
Hence, most interviewees have no formal knowledge or training in forest fire prevention. The interviewees mentioned that they have basic notions, although these were from advertisements on television and some leaflets and panels in natural parks.

100% of interviewees agreed on the importance of participating in forest fire protection training. Furthermore, they agree that such training should be compulsory in pre-schools, secondary schools and universities. Likewise, every year there should be publicity campaigns in the press and on television to complete the information and evacuation drills in more sensitive environments.

The interviewees highlighted evacuation as a measure to self-protect against forest fires:
“They should do the evacuation always in the direction of the lower areas of the valleys, avoiding going up the mountains” and “it is important to know the wind trajectory to predict the fire direction”. Covering the mouth and nose with wet clothes and wetting the clothes. Such measures can “help to control smoke and temperatures”. One of the interviewees suggested going upwind of the fire.
Finally, the importance of fleeing to areas devoid of vegetation or moving to areas that have already burned.

When asked about important measures, they said that being aware of the comprehensive fire action plan by the competent authorities is the most important.
Other prevention measures include clearing undergrowth either by using human resources or with the help of livestock by feeding domestic herbivorous animals such as sheep or goats, which can prune the vegetation and their faeces used as fertilisers.
Finally, they also mentioned that fire alarms are an important means of alerting the population.

2.3.7. Interviews from Türkiye (Forest Fire Protection)

In Türkiye, 23 people (100% male) participated in the meeting held in Ankara’s Bala
district and Mamak/Ortaköy, where the interviews took place.

For the question “what they think is the right thing to do in case of a forest fire”, 44% mentioned calling the fire department and intervening directly. 26% of interviewees argued that it is the right behaviour to first call for professional help and then intervene on their own until the fire crew arrives. Interviewee 8 mentioned “ensure safety” and “remove people, if any, animals, then call the fire brigade”; they also mentioned 13% that, once the firefighters arrive, they would help them combat the fire. Interviewee 11 mentioned he would try to extinguish the fire and inform his surroundings; however, “To extinguish it, they need to mobilize all citizens and inform necessary units”.

When asked about programmes, projects or initiatives promoting forest fire prevention in the region, 87% of the participants said they did not know any training or had participated in any. On the other hand, 13% stated that they were aware of and participated in the training.

All participants (100%) think fire safety education and training are important.
they mentioned that “unfortunately, most people do not know about
fire extinguishing”. Furthermore, they discussed that unconscious fire extinguishing is
likely to cause a greater disaster because “most people can harm both the environment and their health by unconsciously intervening” and that the wrong response to the fire may worsen things.

When asked how they would react to self-protect against forest fire, 65% of the interviewees agreed that the wisest thing to do is to walk away. They also mentioned that informing the authorities and avoiding behaviours likely to cause a forest fire worse is crucial. Interviewee 23 highlighted the importance of covering the mouth and the nose to protect against smoke, and interviewee 10 said he would cover himself in a
wet blanket and try to keep a distance.

Finally, Cesie asked the interviewees their opinion on important measures concerning forest fire prevention. In this regard, 57% of the responses concerned raising awareness among the inhabitants of any fire safety plans in the town/city. 35% of the interviewees mentioned that removing factors causing the fire is important and that forest cleaning should be more frequent. Interviewee 14 added that forests must be free of objects prone to start fires, such as shards of glass.
Finally, the last 8% of the responses had to do with having the city/town hall/council set up a safe assembly area in case of fires, and the use of electronic systems for warning of fire should be more abundant.

2.4. Interviews with professionals on civil protection and forest fire (Forest Fire Protection)

A total of 97 professionals in civil protection and forest fire were interviewed. The
objective was to collect information on the good practices for forest fire prevention and
self-protection that could be passed to rural populations through training.
In total, 5 questions were asked, all of which were in an open-ended format.

2.4.1. Interviews from Cyprus

10 professionals (100% male) in civil and forest fire protection, primarily based around the
CIP interviewd Troodos region. The age range of the interviewees is a large majority
between 31 – 60 years old.

The first question asked the professionals was what suggestion they would offer
concerning the prevention of forest fires. All the professionals interviewed stressed the
importance of prevention as being the A and Z of forest fire protection. The suggestions
on prevention measures have been similar for all professionals. Accordingly, they suggested that direct and in-person communication with people living in rural areas is vital. During these communications, having informational lectures and showing related films on the before and after of forest fires and the destruction that can be caused is useful for making the rural population more aware of the implications of their actions.
Several participants noted that in general and especially during the fire season in Cyprus (May – September), rural inhabitants should maintain their properties clean of

any excess and dry vegetation within and
around the perimeter of their properties. Additionally, a water hose covering
the house’s perimeter is essential.

As for suggestions concerning self-protection, the professionals once cited the proper and correct cleaning of private and public properties in villages around the forests as the most important measure. Other than that, they suggested inhabitants should refrain from using any tools and engaging in activities that produce sparks and can lead to a fire breaking out. Something significant is that if people engage in these activities, they should be aware and know under which weather conditions to do this. If the weather is extremely hot or there are strong winds, they should know to leave the activities for a different day. Most professionals also added that people in rural areas should know and understand that once they see fire or smoke, they should immediately call the 1407 or 112.

CIP asked the professionals if they knew any institution that provided training on fire protection. To this question, 90% of the professionals interviewed noted that apart from the Cyprus Forestry College – which provides official and certified training on forest fire protection for future forest rangers/forest firefighters and other organised collectives such as volunteers in forest fires – there is no other institution providing such training to general citizens.

90% of the participants agree that fire safety education and training are important for
rural populations. Related training in fire safety can allow people to understand the right times of the year to complete certain activities, such as dry vegetation scorching, and how to immediately respond to a fire breakout, always within their limits and safety. One of the respondents remained negative towards people of rural areas gaining any fire safety training since he believes one should be a professional to deal with fires.

For the question” suggested tools/methods that could be utilised for the rural population to be informed on prevention and self-protection from forest fires, most of the interviewees in the professional field of civil protection and fire prevention highlighted the use of the media, such as TV and social media platforms (such as Instagram, Facebook, Twitter). One of the interviewees noted reaching out and collaborating with specific Associations and Clubs, including Cyprus Agriculture.
The organisation, Hunter’s Associations, and Football Clubs located in rural areas could be
beneficial in delivering specific informational lectures and even training on
forest fire prevention and self-protection. This would allow a wider reach in terms of
audience and people not familiar with social media.

2.4.2. Interviews from Germany (Forest Fire Protection)

In Germany, L4Y interviewed four experts on forest fires and civil protection. Out of
these four, 50% were between 18-30 years old, 25% were between 31-40, and the
remaining 25% were between 41-50.

Concerning suggestions that experts would offer for forest fire prevention, two suggestions stood out: increasing awareness campaigns and comprehensive conversion of the more resistant tree species since the report of the forest fire danger index of the German Weather Service (DWD) showed that it was already on level 3 (medium danger) for the Saarland on 18/05/2022. One interviewee cited that cooperation between related organisations and the fire department regarding forest fire prevention should be strengthened and that forest visitors and inhabitants, in general, must be clear that natural disturbance events in forests do not cause most forest fires in Germany but are almost exclusively by human activity. They added that grill-fire ignition and
wrong parking in forest areas in Germany was the most common cause of a forest
fires. Therefore, they highlighted the importance of parking the vehicle in the designated spaces since car catalytic converters are hot and could cause dry vegetation to catch fire. Moreover, increasing target group-specific awareness among the experts also mentioned forest visitors as one important measure to prevent forest fires. Finally, they added that information campaigns (signs in the woods, forest fire hazard information on the radio, Internet pages) must be abundant and repeatedly stress out forest fire hazards in summer and the correct behaviour one should strictly use in places like forests (no smoking, barbecues, campfires, etc.).

As for important self-protection measures, the interviewees said it was essential to avoid breathing the smoke because it can cause various health effects, including respiratory irritation and shortness of breath and can worsen medical conditions like asthma. Hence, they mentioned that it is crucial to use nose and mouth protection as self-protection measures. If by the house, one should leave it immediately using a wet towel.

Most of the experts acknowledged the lack of institutions providing training in fire
protection. One interviewee mentioned it, and the German Fire Brigade Association and the local fire departments mentioned it. Additionally, one interviewee who is a part of the team “Evolnic” (from the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nürnberg) that develop drones for different objectives, including forest fire prevention, mentioned that the State Fire Brigade School (Landesfeuerwehrschule) offer courses and seminars on the subject of the fire brigade and that they were pioneers in the use of drones for fire prevention. and the local fire departments. Additionally, one interviewee who is a part of the team “Evolnic” (from the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen Nürnberg) that develop drones for different objectives, including forest fire prevention, mentioned that the State Fire Brigade School (Landesfeuerwehrschule) offer courses and seminars on the subject of the fire brigade and that they were pioneers in the use of drones for fire prevention.

For a question about tools or methods to inform the population about forest fire prevention and self-protection, they expressed that an effective tool for reaching the rural population was the community newspaper, which regularly reached every household.
Hence, especially during summer, these should contain relevant information on the current forest fire dangers, the correct behaviour in the household, and contact for urgencies. The experts were hesitant about using the internet to convey such information since, in broad rural areas, internet accessibility is still reduced and, therefore, might not be as effective. In addition to the newspaper, they discussed that forest fire danger and correct behaviours should be pointed out at forest entrances with parking lots during the summer.

2.4.3. Interviews from Greece

Regarding the interviews with professionals, there were ten Volunteer Forest –
KMOP interviewed Firefighters (9 males and one female), all 18-30 years old. They all belonged to the “Hellenic Volunteer Firefighters Association.” located in Rodopolis, Attica. They choose This Association because it is a part of the operational planning of the Fire Brigade and the Panhellenic Register of Voluntary Organizations of the General Secretariat of Civil Protection (with number 06/2003) and because it has more than 25 years of experience. This Association operates with an
the approved statute, internal regulations, an organisation chart, and a predetermined shift
schedule and covers many regions in the rural areas of Attica.

When asked about suggestions they would offer concerning the prevention of forest fires, all firefighters responded with the exact instructions. They cited the Protection Guidelines (officially issued by the Hellenic Ministry of Climate Crisis and Civil Protection and the “Hellenic Volunteer Firefighters Association”), which are the official guidelines people should follow. The first instructions concern fire prevention in particular: Do not burn rubbish or dry grass and twigs during the summer months; do not light outdoor grills in the woods or areas with dry grass in summer; avoid tasks that could cause a fire (e.g., welding, using a wheel or other tool that creates sparks); do not throw lighted cigarettes; do not leave rubbish in the forest.

There is a risk of ignition; respect the prohibitions of access in high-risk periods; create a fire zone around the house by cleaning dry grass and leaves, pine needles, and branches within a radius of at least 10 meters; prune the trees up to a height of 3 meters, depending on their age and conditions; remove dry branches from trees and shrubs; do not let the components of the trees rest on the walls, the roof and the balconies of the house; prune them at least 5 meters away from home; dilute tree vegetation so that the branches of one tree are at least 3 meters away from the components of the other.

For even more excellent protection,
– they suggested the removal of the tree and shrubs vegetation around the building at a distance of at least 10 meters,
– provided that the cleaning works of the natural vegetation imposed for the protection of the buildings do not, in any case, violate the provisions of the forest legislation;
– do not place plastic gutters or pipes on the walls of the house;
– do not place flammable shutters on windows and patio doors;
– make sure that the covers on the chimneys and vents of the house are made of non-flammable material so that sparks do not penetrate;
– do not store flammable objects near the house;
– place the firewood indoors and in a sheltered area; do not build uncovered fuel tanks near your home;
– obtain the appropriate fire extinguishers and take care of their maintenance;
– equip yourself with a watering hose with a length proportional to the area you want to protect;
– equip yourself with a water tank, a simple pump without electricity and a water pipe.

Following the aforementioned Protective Guidelines, the interviewees also referred to
examples of self-protective measures when facing a fire. They mentioned that in case of fire,
they need to call Fire Department immediately (tel. 199). Clear
information on the location and exact location, the direction of the fire, and the type of
vegetation that burns should be clear. The respondents also said that people must remain calm if a fire is approaching homes. Some self-protection measures they can do if that happens is to transfer all flammable materials from around the building to enclose it.

They mentioned that all sheltered areas should have all passages (chimneys, windows, doors, etc.) closed so that the heat does not penetrate the house. Gas and liquid fuel supplies inside and outside the home should be turned off, and the awnings on the balconies and windows should be folded. They also mentioned that they need to open garden doors or gates to facilitate the access of fire trucks and that a ladder could be placed the outside of the house, opposite the direction of the fire, so that there is direct access to the roof to connect the watering hoses and lay them out to cover the perimeter of the house. Finally, they suggested that turning on the interior and exterior lights would make them visible through the smoke in case of reduced visibility.

When asked about institutions providing training on fire protection, the respondents
said they were unaware. On the other hand, they mentioned significant educational material had been produced by the Hellenic Ministry of Climate Crisis and Civil Protection and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). Most interviewees also mentioned (and have attended) the Forest Firefighting Conference organised by a civic organisation, “HIGGS.”

All interviewees underlined that fire safety education and training are important for everyone but particularly essential l for vulnerable groups. The respondents said that people must know exactly where they live and know the escape or the meeting points (e.g., in case of evacuation, they must know where to go). The most appropriate place for such education would be in Municipal buildings to reach the general citizens of the town/city.

Finally, for the question about tools/methods, they would suggest informing the rural population. They mentioned that the Municipality should promote demonstrations in consultation with the fire department. Such demonstrations should convey regular information about citizens and different actions to deal with these difficult situations. The Municipalities and the volunteer firefighters’ groups also suggested the organisation of Open Days in areas with increased risk. Moreover, home distribution of information material should be done, and videos about fire protection measures should be produced

2.4.4. Interviews from Italy (Forest Fire Protection)

Four professionals working in the field of fire protection and prevention were
interviewed by the Italian partner, all of whom are professionals coming from Palermo
City and the Palermo region.

Regarding suggestions offered concerning forest fire prevention, the professionals
interviewed shared several ideas. One common suggestion the interviewees gave
was to invest more resources in forest control and fire prevention. Public authorities and
organisations working with natural areas must implement strict controls and fire
prevention activities. Additionally, there should be more attention to which vegetation grows uncontrolled which can threaten the safety of the forests. A more complex approach was proposed by one of the respondents, consisting of the use of volunteer groups as well as new technology such as satellites and drones and the strengthening of the fire intervention infrastructure with more planes, helicopters, and the areas from which they can operate. Moreover, it was stated by the interviewees that it is important to strengthen the ordinary activities of monitoring the territory and contact with the population, the Forestry Corps and Civil Protection staff. Another aspect taken into consideration was cleaning the road edges, considered the main source of possible triggers, by enhancing the activity of the road service authority in areas and periods at greatest risk of fire.

When asked about suggestions concerning self-protection, the interviewees gave different examples that citizens can do to become more active in preventing and protecting better, such as being better citizens when it comes to not committing actions that
can cause forest fires, especially in more difficult seasons like summer and inform and participate in targeted forestry interventions and information campaigns on the value of woodland protection education.

Cesie asked the interviewees if they knew of any institution providing forest fire protection training. 50% of the respondents said they were not aware. One respondent mentioned the regional authority and civil protection, although he was not sure how and how often they take place. One interviewee also mentioned the University as a possible place where training on fire protection might be taught.

Nevertheless, all the respondents agreed that training and education on fire safety were important. Some mentioned that, usually in rural areas, farmers are aware and capable of self-protecting against fires since they are experienced and worried for their livelihood, but information campaigns and awareness campaigns would be useful and helpful. Some mentioned that public and local authorities should implement these initiatives, including “Guardia Forestale” and other volunteer organisations.
Lastly, but not less importantly, one of the interviewees stated that education is fundamental and crucial in forest fire prevention, and there should be cooperation between universities, training centres and local organisations (especially the ones who
fight for the protection of the environment) to provide such training and
educational opportunities.

They proposed several ideas regarding how to inform the population
about forest fire prevention and self-protection. They stated that authorities should conduct awareness campaigns more often and that informational advertisements via television and smartphones. One of the respondents stated that there should be awareness and education campaigns early in school and events and activities to prepare future generations and raise awareness of the danger of forest fires.

2.4.5. Interviews from Portugal

The two Portuguese partners interviewed 24 experts (19 male and six female).
Of these respondents, nine were firefighters from the Humanitarian Association of
Voluntary Firefighters of Ovar; one was a firefighter from the Volunteer Firefighters of
Esmoriz; 11 were firefighters from the Volunteer Firefighters of the Municipality of
Espinho; one was a psychologist, and the remaining two were the president of the town
Canedo and a civil protection representative from the same town. All of them were
between 18 and 60 years old, in specific: 54% were between 18-30 years old; 13%
were between 31-40; 29% were aged between 41-50, and the remaining 4% were
aged between 51-60.

When Cesie asked the experts what suggestions they would offer concerning forest fire prevention, the majority mentioned the clear necessity of raising awareness of forest fires and campaigns in towns/cities, not only during the summer season but all year round, when the weather is more prone to fires but rather all year long and in different formats (online, newspapers, television, gamification, brochures, posters, etc.) to reach a wider age group. They likewise mentioned raising awareness of the people when they need to create escape paths or safety zones in their forests or cultivated areas. And follow an evacuation plan if and when needed.

In addition, people should remove, in advance, flammable vegetation or material around their houses. Furthermore, the interviewees
rose awareness about the need to create training/education – especially in cities and
towns surrounded by wooden areas – so that residents can learn topics such as: how to
use fire correctly and when to do it; how to avoid starting a forest fire; how fires arise
and spread; how to act in case of a fire; how to help themselves and others. They argued that children, adults, and elders should have customized workshops and brainstorming sessions according to their age, mental capacity and living conditions.

On a general note, the respondents said it is important to follow authorities’ recommendations and apply punishment to those who litter forests and start fires. They also expressed the need to improve viewing and supervising points to be more vigilant about activities done in forests and woods. Finally, on a more mental health matter, one interviewee underlined the importance of not giving too much mediatic attention to events such as these because pyromaniacs like the spotlight and all the drama around these catastrophic situations.

When asked about suggestions concerning self-protection, the experts mainly suggest that civilians who experience a fire should immediately call the national emergency number (112) or the fire stations. Whilst the fire brigade is coming, civilians should find a safe shelter or a place burned down. When the fire brigade arrives, the interviewees suggest that people are told how they can help the firefighters and should follow their instructions and advice. Like the question before, most of the experts suggested that people should participate in training about self-protection, particularly those living in rural areas, so they could learn what to do in case of fire, how to act, and how to stay safe.

However, the interviewed firefighters recognised that there is not enough training or even awareness campaigns on the topic. Wildfire smoke can be very harmful. Therefore other suggestions include the need to cover the nose and mouth with a cloth – which is even more important if there are children around or people with asthma, allergies or chronic health issues; if people are inside the house, any airflows, such as windows, vents and doors, must be closed; in some cases, people need to accept that leaving everything behind and follow the authority’s instructions is the only option.

Locals must be aware of the city’s emergency plan (if there is one) to know where the meeting point is and how they can access water. Once people meet at the meeting point, they should follow the instructions given by a representative of the town/city hall/council who would be present too.

As had happened with civilians, the majority of the professionals do not know any
training/education programmes on fire protection for the general population. The interviewees stated that the only training they are aware of is the one provided by the ENB (National Fire Service School – Portugal), the training and certification entity for the training of firefighters in Portugal, which is not open to the public in general. The VET School of Cortegaça (ran by Ovar Forma) mentioned even though VET Courses are for youngsters within a certain age range and to have certified training means taking part during the three years of the course, which means it is not appropriate for inhabitants who just want to learn on specific actions about forest fire prevention and what to do when facing one.

The project “Aldeia Segura” (Safe Village) was mentioned. It is a programme created by the Portuguese government after a major national fire situation in 2017 and aims to create awareness for those who live next to forests and woods on how to act in case of fire and how to avoid and prevent it. Other than that, the only information people can find that comes close to training is specific information/guidelines about these topics on the websites of relevant institutions. They give the website of ICNF (Forest and Nature Conservation Institute) as an example.

All firefighters agreed that there should be training concerning prevention and protection in case of fire. Furthermore, they mentioned that these should occur not
only during the summer season but all year round. When preparing smaller activities or workshops, they suggested that the content should be more general since some of these concepts are hard to grasp. It would help the firefighters work if locals knew the basics of self-protection and prevention. The interviewees believe that authorities should promote the most appropriate place for such training activities and/or should be in recreational places, like the City Council and City Halls, Fire Departments, Associations, and training centres close to populations at risk of reaching the adult audience. Nevertheless, they argued the need to reach children and that mandatory training should be introduced in schools from a very early school year.

The expert interviewees were also asked if there is any tool/method they would suggest informing people about forest fire prevention and self-protection, no matter the age group. For this to work, the dissemination method should be adapted
since the elders do not access digital media at all, and the youngsters do not read the newspaper or barely watch the news on the television or radio. Regarding the children, some interviewees said that the best way to reach them was through school activities;
To reach youngsters, the majority stated that one should use school as well, but
also social media and gamification material; as for elder people, distributing flyers or
brochures announcing training, workshops and any campaign, both face-to-face and by post, could be a good option. Furthermore, television and newspaper ads would also have a good chance of being seen by elders. Some interviewees also mentioned that everyone should have protection kits in emergency and have fire experience (controlled and supervised by the local firefighters) to know how to act and not panic. Finally, they also expressed that the National Authorities should be sharper in announcing the punishment measures when someone commits a fault related to fire protection.

2.4.6. Interviews from Spain (Forest Fire Protection)

Growth Coop interviewed ten professionals (5 female and 5 male). Most reside in the Andalusia region, with populations of no more than 15,000 inhabitants in protected areas and natural parks. All interviewees were under 55 years of age, with 50% being over 40 years of age.

For the question about suggestions they would offer concerning forest fire prevention, the main suggestion highlighted was to avoid panic and make quick decisions, preferring to consult the authorities and always and at all times follow their instructions. They also mentioned that confronting the fire should be avoided if one does not have personal protective equipment and the supervision of fire-fighting professionals.

Regarding self-protection suggestions, the professionals said that the first thing to do is
to always notify emergency services of the location of the fire and the location itself. Protecting the respiratory tract with wet handkerchiefs and wet clothes and carrying a whistle to be located if the fire is reducing visibility. It was
agreed that inhabitants should always run away from the fire in a downwind direction
to avoid being surrounded by it and avoid the high ground. TheyBosev expressed that, if caught in a vehicle, one should not drive if visibility is low due to smoke and should stop the vehicle in an area clear of vegetation, away from the fire, and with the lights on.

When asked about institutions providing training on fire protection, the experts mentioned that apart from the training received during the study of the profession to be carried out and fire drills by public institutions, little training is given to the general population, with NGOs being the only ones to provide training in this field in natural environments.

All interviewees agreed on the utmost importance of training for the rural population, which should be promoted in educational environments with information from professionals in the field, as it would avoid much of the negligence often committed when a forest fire develops. More evacuation and fire drills should also be carried out.

Finally, when asked for tools/methods to convey information related to forest fire prevention and self-protection to the rural populations, the main measure suggested by the experts was to carry out simulations since it allows for verifying the failures and shortcomings of the population in this area and proceed with corrective measures.

2.4.7. Interviews from Türkiye

Bosev interviewed 35 experts in Türkiye in the civil protection and forest fire fields. The
interviewees were employees of the Ankara Metropolitan Municipality Fire Department, Ankara Provincial Directorate of Agriculture and Bala District Directorate of Agriculture.

When asked for suggestions to prevent forest fires, the experts mentioned that, firstly,
to prevent forest fires, society must become sensitive to this issue, therefore the need
to raise public service announcements on forest fire prevention. They also mentioned that people should not do picnics in forest areas and that authorities should prohibit this practice.

When asked for suggestions concerning self-protection when exposed to forest fires,
interviewee 7 mentioned that, during a fire, one should be and act consciously by taking
precautions first (for instance, pay attention to the direction of the wind and how fast the fire is spreading). They also mentioned that having equipment such as masks, tubes and backrests at home and creating an escape route is also essential when exposed to a fire. Some respondents also said that people should stay away from fires, especially if they have not received adequate training on this subject. They should follow the fore fire professional instructions to the smallest detail.

When asked if they knew institutions that provide training on fire protection, 89% of the
interviewees said they were aware, whereas 11% were not. The institutions mentioned
by the interviewees were the General Directorate of Forestry, the Disaster and
Emergency Management Presidency and, in some cases, even Universities.

100% of the respondents agreed that fire safety education is essential for rural
populations. One example of a topic shared by most interviewees was fire extinguisher
training. Responsibility in the fire extinguishing process is not only for people who are
experts in the job but also for the population living in rural areas. In this context, interviewees said that the first response to the fire is critical to minimise the loss of life and property and that, therefore, it would be helpful if such a response was made in the right way; otherwise, inhabitants might put their lives at risk and/or even cause the fire to become more intense. Interviewee 9 added that the importance of educating the populations on forest fires because of the lack of fire brigades in rural areas in Türkiye and the time it takes to get there. Hence, as mentioned by interviewee 25, a well-done “intervention of rural citizens until the fire department reaches the scene prevents the fire from growing.”, which reinforces the need for forest fire training in rural populations.

Finally, BOSEV asked the experts for suggestions of tools/methods to keep the rural populations informed about the prevention of forest fires. They mentioned that inhabitants should engage in forest fire educational activities such as public education seminars and public service announcements. And that these should be increased to raise public awareness. Additionally, publications on the topic could be distributed in rural locations.

2.5. Preliminary module structure (Forest Fire Protection)

Partners defined a preliminary module structure based on data collected and analysed from the previous activities. The structure reflects the different training needs of the different
socio-geographic profiles identified during the interviews.

Module structure: Forest fire prevention and self-protection against forest fires

UnitContentLearning outcomesTimeframe
1. Introduction
to forest fire
1.1 Definition of forest fire
1.2 Impact on the envi-
1.3 Causes of ignition
1.3.1 Fire Triangle
1.3.2 Natural activity
1.3.3 Human activity
1.4 Fire classification
1.5 Managing forest fires
•Understand the concept of
a forest fire;
• Recognise the impact of
forest fire on the environment
• Recognise the presence of
fire hazards and common
ignition sources;
• Identify the types of fire
and how they are spread.
2. Forest fire
2.1 Staying Informed
2.2 Preventive measures
2.2.1 General
2.2.2 When in forests
2.2.3 Equipment
2.3 Fire safety zone
• Understand the
importance of being aware of
the local law regarding for-
est fire;
• Be aware of preventive
forest fire measures;
• Identify different types of
fire prevention equipment
and know when to use
• Identify the main steps to
create a fire safety zone
3. Self-protec-
tion against
forest fire
2.1 Staying Informed
2.2 Preventive measures
2.2.1 General
2.2.2 When in forests
2.2.3 Equipment
2.3 Fire safety zone
• Identify the main steps to
create an escape plan and
how to proceed during an
• Understand general pro-
cedures on how to re-
spond to a forest fire in
different situations and lo-
• Understand the im-
portance of the items that
are part of an emergency

2.6. Round tables to discuss the module structure (Forest Fire Protection)

All partners conducted the round tables between July and September 2022, one in each participating country. The aim of the round tables was to discuss the module structure with the External Group of Experts and gather inputs for the final structure of the module. In total, there were 27 participants who were, among others, education representatives and professionals on
forest fires.

2.6.1. Round table from Cyprus

C.I.P Citizens in Power conducted the roundtable on 05/09/2022 online via Microsoft
Teams. There were two experts who participated: one fire service professional (specifically, the head of communications for the Cyprus Fire Service) and one political actor (the head of the community council of one of the rural villages in Cyprus). In addition, a validation questionnaire in the form of a google form was sent out to all participants, including the absent participant (ex-Fireman and current associate of the Civil Protection Agency), to gain their expert input and validate the structure of the training programme. Moreover, following the suggestion of one of the roundtable
participants (see below), we also contacted an Officer and trained Forest Firefighter at the Department of Forests to give their feedback.

In general, the responses on the validation of the content were positive. All participants
have stressed the importance of the concepts we want to stress through our
module. The consistency of the three units’ contents against the objectives of the
the training programme has been rated as very good by all participants. Moreover, the participants have reassured us that the material is being presented in a logical and coherent way by giving this section a rating of very good. As far as the knowledge gained by each of the units regarding the prevention and self-protection from forest fires, the participants generally rated it as very relevant with one giving it a rating of relevant.

The fact that we have included a point on the local laws and regulations regarding forest
fires was commended very positively. The participants also discussed the important
technological innovations that are either being implemented or have been in effect for
the past few years to assist with the early detection and confrontation of forest fires by professionals. One participant suggested that we should receive a validation of the material by a staff of the Forests Department. Whilst civil protection in forest fires does not fall under their jurisdiction, forest rangers are specifically responsible for firefighting forest fires and could have important input and feedback to give to the module’s structure.

In summary, the participants of the roundtable and the respondents to the
questionnaire recognised the topics and contents covered by the proposed units as sufficient. The efforts of the project, in general, have been commended very positively by the experts. In addition, the experts contacted stressed the importance of our work in assisting officials’ ongoing efforts to inform and secure our forests and rural populations.

2.6.2. Round table from Germany

L4Y Learning for Youth GmbH organised the roundtable online using Google Meet on
15/09/2022. Two experts attended the meeting: one expert from Saarforst Landesbetrieb in Saarbrücken, Germany, who works in forestry and nature conservation, and one trainer from Jugendvision e.V. in Stuttgart, Germany.

During the round table, the experts considered that the content in Units 1, 2 and 3 covered the fundamental topics. It was emphasised that informing people about fire causes was important, as well as explaining the types of fires to distinguish them (ground fires, base fires, etc.) to increase rural people’s understanding and participation in wildfire mitigation.

Regarding the knowledge of Unit 2 based on the content, they were asked to cover, most
experts again rated it as “Relevant”. Regardless, it was emphasised that it is vital to have
the equipment – at least a fire extinguisher- in case of fire. Most participants rated all
three units as “Good”. At the same time, some statements were “Very Good”,
“Excellent” and “Needs Improvement”.

In Unit 3, partners also mentioned that it is essential to create a coloured map for people
in rural areas, showing rescue points, meeting places and affected people from the surrounding area. Which can then be used as escape routes in the field. Especially in the case of a forest fire, it would be helpful to provide contact information for the people living in rural areas. However, for all types of disaster events, the Federal Office of Civil Protection and Disaster Management has compiled information for the public on what to do, what emergency measures to take, whom to contact, where to go, etc.

Finally, all participants agreed that each unit’s content was clear and logically structured.
In conclusion, all participants of the meeting agreed that the content of the training
structure is sufficient and contains important information needed by people in rural

2.6.3. Round table from Greece (Forest Fire Protection)

Additionally, KMOP organised the roundtable online using Google Meet on 09/09/2022 with three experts from the field of forest fires protection and the ministry of civil protection. Two
of the participants are volunteer firefighters from the forest firefighting and forest
protection unit of Rhodopolis, and the other participant is a representative of the
Ministry for the climate crisis and civil protection from the forest fires department.

The experts received the content of the three Units before the round table, so they reviewed all the topics, and during the round table, they discussed the content.

In general, they were very positive about the structure of the preliminary module on
forest fire prevention and self-protection also underlined that Unit 2 and Unit 3 are very well structured. They also commented on the pedagogical approach: they believe a face-to-face format for this specific topic may be more suitable, and they have concerns about the digitalisation of Unit 2 and Unit 3 still it is content that should be taught in a face-to-face format. Nevertheless, they wait for the training platform to be released to give their opinion.

One good suggestion that one volunteer firefighter made was that since the volunteer firefighting teams are more than the officials in the rural areas, maybe, this
dedicated training should be piloted to their teams and tested on the rural population.

Their general evaluation was very positive. They are waiting for the full training program adapted to the Greek reality about the adaptation; they were more than willing to give their feedback and knowledge.

In conclusion, the three participants of the round table admired the structure of the three Units, especially the third one that identified the main steps to create an escape plan and tips for evacuation. They also underlined the good design of Unit 2. Still, it must be a local adaptation in the Greek case, not only a national one, because there are many different regions with different approaches and volunteer units that help, and the rural population must know this information.

2.6.4. Round table from Italy

CESIE conducted its round table on 26/09/2022 online via the ZOOM platform. Emiliano
Mungiovino moderated the activity as project manager on behalf of the Italian
organisation. Cesie invited three people to the activity: Giuseppe Maria Amato (Manager of AANNPP Legambiente Sicily, Scientific coordinator of the Rocca di Cerere UNESCO Global Geopark); Francesco Zanna (Legambiente Sicily); Laura La Scala (project manager and expert in digital education, CESIE). All the participants are based in Sicily and have direct experience with the local rural communities and the local authority, as well as being part of organisations involved in protecting the environment and enrichment of education towards sensitive issues and topics.

After a brief introduction about the project and its objectives, Emiliano Mungiovino from CESIE presented the round table agenda and what was expected from all the participants during the event. Afterwards, the preliminary training structure was presented as a
whole, and then, one by one, each main unit and topic was discussed by the participants.

First of all, there was a discussion, while examining the first unit, regarding the objective
of the training itself: the participants started by debating on the importance of considering the protection against fire not only for humans but also for the
environment. They continued by mentioning the need to differentiate the type of
forests and woods. To give context, they added that some are natural, while others are

created by humans and, therefore, offer fewer environmental values, especially if they
are cleaned and kept under specific controls. So, according to the participants of the
round table, there must be a lot of specifications and explanations regarding how many
types of woods (or non-woods) and forests exist, how to identify them and what are
their values and benefit for the environment as well as for humans. They also stated
that there should be a focus on the type of fires as well, not only how it is physically
possible, but what different types of fires exist and how they develop and cause damage.
Another important aspect should be focusing on the effect of forest fires after they are
extinguished and the permanent results of their damage in terms of
environment and finances for the communities that have to endure the consequences.
Apart from this feedback, they considered Unit 1 relevant and the content was
organised clearly and logically. They consider the content very much in line with the
learning objectives.

Regarding Unit 2, participants stated that this one was a more informative one and there
should be a focus on the consequences for people who violate rules and laws regarding
forest fires. Also, they focused on the aspect of planning and good practices in managing the territory from the local authorities, which, often in Sicily, do not plan the expansion of forests or woods, leading to disasters. According to the participants, there is a lack of expert personnel at both high and low levels in dealing with the management of the
environment leading to poor maintenance and issues, so an informative module like this
one could be important, especially if enriched with pictures and example of good
management of forests and woods in contrast to bad management. This unit was
considered relevant, and the content was well-organised and logical. The
content was considered very much in line with the learning objectives.

They considered Unit 3 a more practical one. And they suggest that the length of this one should be shorter than the first two as knowledge and information are more important. There was no detailed feedback for Unit 3, if not a consideration, on how difficult it could be to adapt material and information regarding things such as “escape plans” if the content should be relevant to forest fires. However, they considered the module relevant, clearly and logically organised, and its topic well aligned with its learning objectives.

All the participants provided crucial feedback on the topics of the preliminary course
structure with many ideas and unexpected comments and suggestions. The content of the observations and comments was highly technical, probably more than necessary for
the type of training expected by both the consortium and the application. However, most of the feedback was very practical and useful and will lead to a better training structure and better training content.

2.6.5. Round table from Portugal

Also, SPEL and OVARFORMA conducted the round table on 28/07/2022 online via Google Meet. As a result, in total, there were seven experts: two education professionals (a VET Trainer and a coordinator of an adult education centre), two political actors (a representative from a parish council and a president from a parish council), three civil protection representatives (a deputy firefighter from the Volunteer Firefighters of the Municipality of Espinho, a deputy firefighter from the Volunteer Firefighters of Ovar and a professional from the Portuguese Red Cross of Ovar).

All experts in the round table considered that the content included in Unit 1, Unit 2 and
Unit 3 corresponds to the expected topics to be covered. Nevertheless, during the session, they underlined the importance of providing psychological support to forest fire victims, and thus they suggested including it in Unit 1. Moreover, one professional proposed adding a topic related to the “Valorisation of the forests” (at an economic, environmental, social, and leisure level), aiming to strengthen the awareness and involvement of rural populations in their defence against aggressors. They argued and agreed that if a forest has meaning and value to a person/population/society, fires set up by human activity can be potentially reduced hence the importance of including such a topic in the module structure.

Additionally, general recommendations and guidelines promoted by the competent authorities were referred to. Such a proposal is intended to reinforce the messages about prevention regarding certain activities and procedures. In this sense, common and practical topics such as the timing and the requisites to burn the forest and household waste should be included. A great percentage of the population seems unfamiliar with the legislation and the inherent administrative procedures, which sometimes create and put them in unnecessarily risky situations.

When asked about the consistency of contents covered compared to the learning outcomes, most participants rated “Excellent” in all 3 units, and “Very good” was the second most given response.

Regarding the knowledge provided by each unit based on the content, they will cover, the majority of the experts once rated it as “Very relevant”, followed by “Relevant” as the second and only answer. Nonetheless, it was stressed that considering the profile (dominant age and cultural profile of our rural populations), practical activities such as fire drills should be privileged to better prepare the population.

Finally, all participants considered that each Unit’s content was structured clearly and logically. Except for the inclusion of the topic related to the valorisation of the forests in Unit 2, they did not make any other comments regarding an eventual restructuring of the content covered in any other Unit.

2.6.6. Round table from Spain

By the time, Growthcoop, S.C.A. held the meeting telematically, via zoom, on 05/09/2022 and had four participants. Of the four, two are civil protection workers in rural areas, in Jaén and
Almería, one person is a member of the military who collaborates with the UME
(Emergency Military Unit) in Galicia, and the fourth is a forest firefighter from the
Navalperal INFOCA fire station.

The experts gathered at the round table to analyse the contents of the project unanimously agreed on the acceptance of the contents of the units and their correspondence with the topics foreseen when analysing them at the meeting. One of the civil protection workers referred to the importance of visits by forestry experts to students from secondary schools or schools near the areas where there have been recent fires to raise awareness of the damage caused and the negligence that can cause them, thus creating awareness in the young population of the importance of caring for and valuing the natural environment of their area of residence. They also advised on the need to value the ecological level of natural areas and to make the population aware of the characteristics of their flora and fauna, endemic or endangered or protected species.

Furthermore, they mentioned that the population should be aware of legislation affecting the disposal of waste, or the burning of pruning waste or crop residues, to avoid fires caused by possible negligence.

Regarding the coherence of the content with the learning outcomes, in Unit 1, half of the participants rated it as “excellent”, and the other 50% rated it as very good. For Units 2 and 3, 75% of the participants rated it as “excellent”, and 25% rated it as “very good”.

On the question of the relevance of the unit in providing basic knowledge, for units 1
and 2, 75% of the participants rated it as “very relevant”, and 25% rated it as relevant. In
the case of unit 3, 100% rated it as very relevant. Regarding the organisation of the
content, 100% of the participants agreed that the content of the different project units is expressed in a clear and concise manner.

The general assessment of the project by the participants has been very positive, considering that it is an essential subject in rural areas, especially in those with a high ecological, botanical or zoological importance, since a population that is aware of the means of action in case of fire is, in turn, a population aware of the importance of fire prevention subjects. They focus on raising awareness at an early age, one of the stages in which respect for the environment and the importance of conserving the natural environment can best be instilled.

On the other hand, they point out that at present, there are no effective prevention programmes, either at a local, regional or national level, and these projects, with such specific content, can help to improve this situation, both on a large scale, in the population, and on a small scale, in the political leaders who must legislate better to protect forests with coherent legislation on prevention and continuous training.

2.6.7. Round table from Türkiye

BOSEV held its roundtable meeting face-to-face on 10/08/2022. In brief, there were seven participants in total: one local authority manager: Mustafa ÖZEL, Director of Mamak District Directorate of National Education (DoNE); one municipality manager: Deniz SAYIN, a Corporate Development Manager from Mamak Municipality; one civil defence manager: Hayrettin YILMAZ, County Schools civil defence director; one education manager: Aydın ÖZTÜRK, Mamak DoNE, Head of Education and Culture Department; three R&D department representatives from Mamak DoNE: Güler Keskin TANRIVERDİ, Head of R&D department, and Nurcan GÜNGÖREN and Şeyma TOPÇU, R&D department Experts. Additionally, there was one project manager, Bilal KILINÇ, to moderate the session.

In addition, the District Directorate of National Education (DoNE); one municipality manager: Deniz SAYIN, a Corporate Development Manager from Mamak Municipality; one civil defence manager: Hayrettin YILMAZ, County Schools civil defence director; one education manager: Aydın ÖZTÜRK, Mamak DoNE, Head of Education and Culture Department; three R&D department representatives from Mamak DoNE: Güler Keskin TANRIVERDİ, Head of R&D department, and Nurcan GÜNGÖREN and Şeyma TOPÇU, R&D department Experts. Additionally, there was one project manager, Bilal KILINÇ, to moderate the session.

Participants mentioned that Unit 1 could be used to raise awareness on the topic and to organise a social media campaign to prevent fires caused by individual mistakes, especially in Summer. In addition to the measures for the use of social media campaigns, up-to-date communication channels, and perhaps cutting-edge announcement channels in rural areas, which can be considered within the scope of fire prevention activities, the importance of what to do during and after the fire was also emphasised.
For this purpose, the importance of first aid training during and after the fire was emphasised. Moreover, coordination, team management, effective communication
and emergency response training that may be needed during the fire were also stated as important.

Certainly, all participants shared that the topics and contents covered in the module were appropriate, having mentioned that these were innovative and could be used in regional schools, municipalities, research and development and educational content.

They stressed the need to teach first aid training, that awareness campaigns and campaign management via social media channels on the topic should be more promoted, and the importance of necessary skills and competencies during and after the fire. It was also mentioned that the training module could be integrated into the training conducted throughout the district and close an important fire prevention gap. Finally, they showed interest in the project and said they would keep up with its progress.

3. Main findings of the activities (Forest Fire Protection)

3.1. Benchmarking of good practices

Considering the 24 good practices collected by the partners of the consortium, it is possible to conclude that:

  • Some Erasmus+ projects, initiatives and informative documents to better prepare the population in case of wildfires have been carried out;
  • Additionally, some campaigns of awareness about the dangers of wildfires, as well as the importance of forests and how everyone should value these, have been implemented;
  • Most of the good practices have been promoted by Fire Departments, environmental-related training centres or European-funded projects;
  • There is still the need to respond to the lack of actions taking place in rural communities;
  • Likewise, there are actions taking place in a specific part of the year rather than throughout the year;
  • Collaboration between organisms such as the Fire Department and governmental structures for the implementation of initiatives and campaigns, as well as the promotion of these, will ease access to information and education for the rural population.

3.2. Interviews (Forest Fire Protection)

While the analysis of the data collected from the 99 interviews conducted with people from rural areas and 97 professionals on forest fires and civil protection allowed us to reach the following main findings:

  • Most people from rural areas lack the knowledge and the appropriate equipment to fight forest fires or protect themselves when exposed to fires;
  • The knowledge that rural area residents have was acquired informally, mainly from their own experience with previous fires and from the general information spread on social media;
  • There is a clear lack of training and initiatives on forest fire conducted in rural areas;
  • It is of utmost importance to promote training and initiatives on forest fire since these can produce significant impacts, such as delaying a fire until the competent authorities arrive, as well as saving lives;
  • Both younger and older generations want to learn about forest fire prevention and self-protection tips;
  • However, older generations do not have the opportunity to participate in long courses due to unavailability or age requirements. Instead, they want to learn specific forest fire prevention and self-protection topics more quicker. For instance, they want to learn specifically what is the right fire prevention equipment to have at home, what is the right behaviour in forests, how to correctly use a fire extinguisher, how to promote a fire safety zone and what is an escape plan;
  • Initiatives and campaigns to raise awareness of forest fires must be implemented all year long and not only before (or during) the fire season starts.

3.3. Round tables to discuss the module structure

Meanwhile, the implementation of round tables in each participating country led to creation of a space where 27 participants could comment on the training programme and provide suggestions to improve it. Also, by analysing the feedback collected, different topics were referred to as very important to be addressed in forest fire prevention training.

Since the training will focus only on forest fire prevention (as background knowledge) and, most importantly, on self-protective preventive and reactive actions when forest fires are threatened, certain relevant topics were not included in the training structure. For instance, it underlined the importance of providing psychological support to forest fire victims and first aid training. However, it was reasoned by the consortium that such topics do not promote forest fire prevention or self-protection. Instead, it is the role of health experts and psychologists to provide this training and support after the fire if needed.

Nevertheless, the training structure was considered to be complete if it addressed the
following topics:

  • Local laws and regulations regarding forest fires and the consequences for people who violate them;
  • Contact information of relevant institutions that can be contacted in case of forest fires (Municipalities, Fire Departments, Police);
  • Fire causes and types of fires;
  • Difference between the types of forest and woods;
  • Good management of forests and woods in contrast to bad management;
  • The need to value forests and the benefits they have on the environment and for humans;
  • Permanent results on the environment and finances for the communities who endure forest fires;
  • Useful equipment to have at home (e.g., fire extinguisher, first aid kit);
  • Practical activities such as fire drills and the creation of coloured maps for people in rural areas, showing rescue points and meeting places;
  • Protection against fire not only for humans but also for the environment.

In addition, it was mentioned the importance of creating a training programme
adapted to rural regions rather than making it too general/national. Since the training will target people from rural areas, this is certainly a recommendation that the consortium will consider when developing the training module.

Finally, to make the training module more appealing and help transfer the knowledge, it was suggested that it be enriched with pictures and images.

4. Final version of the module structure

4.1. Introduction

The activities developed during the first phase of the project intended to help the partners define a preliminary module structure on forest fire prevention and self-protection when exposed to forest fires, adjustable to the different training needs of the different socio-geographic profiles identified in the interviews (activities R1:A3 and R1:A4).

Thus, the preliminary module structure results from an in-depth analysis of the data collected by the Forest Fire Protection consortium: a collection of good practices and case studies worldwide and interviews with people from rural areas and experts on civil protection and forest fire. The structure summarises the recommendations obtained by the different good practices and the opinion of the interviewees and was opportunely validated by experts in a round table format.

Specific training about forest fire prevention and self-protection against fires is essential for people living in rural areas since they are more prone to being exposed to forest fires. Developing a training module on these topics will, therefore, provide the rural inhabitants with the knowledge and competencies to prevent forest fires and be better prepared when facing forest fires, although by no means will these ever replace the role of the firefighters.

Below is presented the general module structure and the main goals, the training
material structure and the methodology for the training. A table summarising the topics covered in each unit, the learning outcomes and a reference time dedicated to each unit are also included.

4.2. General module structure and the main goal

The module on Forest Fire Prevention and Self-Protection aims to provide rural inhabitants with the skills and competencies to prevent forest fires and be better prepared when exposed to fire, as well as to enhance the confidence of the rural stakeholders involved in the project for the implementation of educational activities for protection against fires in rural areas.

The module is divided into three different units:

  1. Introduction to a forest fire: the first unit will provide a general overview and acquaintance with concepts associated with forest fires;
  2. Forest fire prevention: the second unit will include procedures and recommendations that rural inhabitants can adopt to prevent forest fires;
  3. Self-protection against forest fire: the third unit will provide procedures and recommendations for self-protection against fires and ensure better forest fire control.

4.3. Pedagogical approach

The pedagogical methodology is oriented both for an online and a face-to-face format.

Regarding the online learning format, a training platform will include a section for each of the three units, which will be visible at all times (so that the user can select what topics she/he wants to learn about without having to complete the previous unit). By accessing each unit/section, the content covered in it will be revealed along with illustrations and images of the contents, as well as videos and/or animation. At the end of each unit, an evaluation in a test form is available. The results will be automatic, and the learners will have access to them in real time.

Concerning the face-to-face learning format, the training units will be available in PDF
format, and power point presentations will be developed with the content covered in
each unit. Similar to the training platform, the presentations will also have illustrations, images, videos and/or animation to help the learner visualise the content delivered.

Moreover, training material with exercises/activities will be created to ensure that the learning outcomes are reached more easily.

As a result, at the end of each unit, more information and resources will be available. In addition, a Trainer’s Guidelines will be included with useful tips concerning time management and activities to perform to support trainers in implementing the content both in an online and in a face-to-face learning environment.

Finally, online and printable versions of each unit and training resources will be available for download.

4.4. Structure of the training material

Concurrently, the module will be oriented to be implemented both in an online learning environment and in a face-to-face format. An online and printable version of each unit and training
resources will be available for download on the training platform.

The units will be organised as follows:

  • Abstract: summary (1 paragraph) of what will be presented in the unit;
  • Learning contents: the content covered in the unit as validated by the experts;
  • Learning outcomes: the outcomes that the learner will be able to achieve at the end of the unit;
  • Timeframe: the expected timeframe to deliver the unit;
  • References: the references of the sources used for the theoretical content;
  • Content: the theoretical part of the unit. There will be a section for each topic covered in the unit;
  • Additional information and resources: references and links for extra information about the topics covered in the unit.

Meanwhile, the training material will be organised as follows:

  • Description of the activity/exercise: a brief description of the suggested activity for the unit;
  • Type: refer to the type of activity proposed (e.g., multiple choice, fill in the gaps, field exercise, true/false, etc.)
  • Material: identification of the material required to implement the activity in case of face-to-face activities;
  • Material: identification of the material required to implement the activity in case of face-to-face activities;

4.5. Final training structure

Module structure: Forest fire prevention and self-protection against forest fires

UnitContentLearning OutcomesTimeframe
1. Introduction
to forest fire
1.1 Definition of forest fire
1.2 Impact on the envi-
1.3 Causes of ignition
1.3.1 Fire Triangle
1.3.2 Natural activity
1.3.3 Human activity
1.4 Fire classification
1.5 Managing forests and
forest fires
• Understand the concept of
a forest fire;
• Recognise the impact of
forest fire on the environment;
• Recognise the presence of
fire hazards and common
ignition sources;
• Identify the types of fire
and how they are spread.
2. Forest fire
2.1 Staying Informed
2.2 Valuing forests
2.3 Preventive measures
2.3.1 General
2.3.2 When in forests
2.3.3 Equipment
2.4 Fire safety zone
• Understand the
importance of being aware of
the local law regarding for-
est fires;
• Understand the ecological level of natural areas
and the environmental
importance of forests;
• Be aware of preventive
forest fire measures;
• Identify different types of
fire prevention equipment
and know when to use
• Identify the main steps to
create a fire safety zone
3. Self-protection against
forest fire
3.1 Escape Plan
3.2 Responding to a forest
fire – what to do when:
3.2.1 It approaches the
area of residence
3.2.2 Confined at home
3.2.3 Outside
3.3 Emergency kit
• Identify the main steps to
create an escape plan and
how to proceed during an
• Understand general procedures on how to respond
to a forest fire in different
situations and locations;
• Understand the
importance of the items that
are part of an emergency


This report presents an overview of the activities developed by the Forest Fire Protection project partnership during Result 1 – FFP Training Framework.

Also, the implementation of the different activities described in this report laid the foundations for creating a training module and training materials aimed at providing knowledge about forest fire prevention and self-protection against forest fires.

The recommendations and opinions of the experts involved during the project were
considered to create a final training structure that met the quality and expectations of the project’s beneficiaries. Furthermore, by involving experts and other relevant stakeholders, the partnership has learnt valuable lessons about:

  • the lack of training and initiatives to raise awareness on forest fire prevention and self-protection, especially in rural areas;
  • the constraints faced by the forest fire experts regarding the lack of knowledge about the local laws and forest fire prevention procedures in the population in general, as well as the lack of information communicated in rural areas;
  • the willingness of both the younger and older generations to learn about forest fire prevention and how they can self-protect against forest fires to preserve the environment, save lives, and ease the role of the forest fire experts, and
  • the most fundamental topics that should be addressed in the training module will be developed later in the project.

Considering the data collected during the activities and the validation and involvement of experts, the partnership is convinced that the training module that will be developed will support the transfer of knowledge and skills to the rural populations to increase their safety, thereby matching the objectives of the project.

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